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PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL FORAGES IN ILLINOIS


THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS commercial forage testing program has been testing public and private forages for over 51 years. The initial purpose was to evaluate the many public varieties available, today public varieties are far out numbered by private varieties. This year 44 seed companies are participating in the 2002 trials.

The purpose of this commercial forage testing program is to provide unbiased, objective, and accurate testing of all varieties entered. The tests are conducted on as uniform a soil as is available in the testing area. Small plots are used to reduce the chance ofsoil and climatic variations occurring between one variety plot and another.

The results of these tests should help you judge the merits of varieties in comparison with other private and public varieties. Because your soils and management may differ from those of the test location, you may wish to plant variety strips of the higher-performing varieties on your farm. The results printed in this circular should help you decide which varieties to try.

TEST PROGRAM

Selection of entries Forage producers in Illinois and surrounding states were invited to enter varieties in the 2002 Illinois forage performance trials. Entrants were required to provide seed in a commercially available container to the University of Wisconsin for distribution to other public testing programs. This is to ensure performance is not affected by seed source and to avoid each entrant the cost of sending a commercial bag of seed to each program.

To help finance the testing program, a fee of $450 per location per 4 years was charged for each variety entered by the seed producer. Most of these varieties are commercially available, but some experimental varieties were also entered. A total of 140 varieties were tested in 2002.

Number and location of tests In 2002, tests were conducted at 5 locations throughout the state (see map on pg. 4). These sites represent the major soils and dairy producing areas of the state.

Field plot design
Entries of each test were replicated four times in a randomized complete block. Plot size was 23 feet by 3 feet andend trimmed at each harvest to obtain a 19 foot long plot.

Fertility and weed control
All test locations were managed at a high level of fertility for each crop. Herbicides were used at all testlocations for weed control.

Method of planting and harvesting
All trials were seeded with a five row seeder modified to accommodate small plot seeding. Plots were seeded at 18 pounds per acre. Harvests were taken with a custom built flail chopper equipped with electronic data gathering equipment.

PERFORMANCE DATA


Yield Forage yield is reported in tons dry matter per acre. Yields were converted to a dry matter basis by estimating percent moisture within each trial.

SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPARING ENTRIES

It is impossible to obtain an exact measure of performance when conducting any test of plant material. Harvesting efficiency may vary, soils may not be uniform, and many other conditions may produce variability. Results of repeated tests are more reliable than those of a single year or a single-strip test. When one variety consistently out yields another at several test locations and over several years of testing, the chances are good that this difference is real and should be considered in selecting a variety.

As an aid in comparing alfalfa varieties within a single trial, certain statistical tests have been devised. One of these tests, the least significant difference (L.S.D.), when used in the manner suggested by Carmer and Swanson1 is quite simple to apply and is more appropriate than most other tests. When two entries are compared and the difference between them is greater than the tabulated L.S.D. value, the entries are judged to be "significantly different."

The L.S.D. is a number expressed in tons dry matter per acre and presented following the average yield. An L.S.D. of 5% is shown. Add the L.S.D. value to the trial mean. Every variety with a greater yield than the resulting number is 'statistically better than average. Consider the merits of the varieties in this group when making varietal selections.

To make the best use of the information presented in this circular and to avoid any misunderstanding or misrepresentation of it, the reader should consider an additional caution about comparing entries. Readers who compare entries in different trials should be extremely careful, because no statistical tests are presented for that purpose. Readers should note that the difference between a single entry's performance at one location and its performance at another is caused primarily by environmental effects and random variability. Furthermore, the difference between the performance of entry A in one trial and the performance of entry B in another trial is the result not only of environmental effects and random variability, but of genetic effects as well.

1Carmer, S.G. and M.R. Swanson. "An Evaluation of Ten Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures by Monte Carlo Methods."
Journal of American Statistical Association 68:66-74. 1983.

2002 TEST FIELDS

Freeport
Location: Stephenson county, north of Freeport, north central Illinois.
Cooperators: Dave and Mike Macomber.

Yorkville
Location: Kendall county, south of Yorkville, north eastern Illinois.
Cooperator: Dave Stewart.

Urbana

Location: University of Illinois, Crop Sciences Research and Education Center, Champaign County, east central Illinois.
Cooperators: Robert Dunker, agronomist, Mike Kleiss, farm foreman.

Perry

Location: University of Illinois, Orr Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center, near Perry, Pike County, west central Illinois.
Cooperators: Glenn Raines, agronomist; Mike Vose, farm foreman.

Belleville

Location: Southern Illinois University Research Center, east of Belleville, St. Clair County.
Cooperators: Ed Varsa, research director; Ron Krausz, field manager.

 

2002 Growing Season Rainfall

Location
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Freeport

4.90

2.70
6.90
1.40
2.00
Yorkville
4.40
4.80
3.20
1.60
3.10
Urbana
6.29
2.78
2.73
7.27
1.77
Perry
9.15
4.60
4.75
4.46
0.85
Belleville
6.60
1.74
3.74
3.62
3.38


SOURCES OF SEED


  Department of Crop Sciences
College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
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