Selection of entries. Each year, producers of corn and sorghum hybrids in Illinois and surrounding states are invited to enter hybrids in the Illinois performance trials. Financing is provided thru entry fees. Entrants are required to enter their corn hybrids regionally at a fee of $240 for each corn hybrid entered in a region or $80 per hybrid for the Urbana Roundup Resistant and corn following corn tests. Fees for sorghum hybrid testing were $240 per region for each hybrid. Most of these hybrids are commercially available, although a few experimental hybrids are also entered.

Number and location of tests. In 2004, hybrid corn entrants were required to enter hybrid(s) in at least one of 4 regions each consisting of 3 locations with a total of 12 locations in the state (see map). These sites represent the major soil and climatic areas of the state.

Hybrids. There were 384 corn hybrids from 50 companies and 10 sorghum hybrids from 4 companies tested in 2004.

Field-plot design. Three replications of an alpha lattice design or randomized complete block were used to give each corn or sorghum entry an equal chance to show its merits.

Planting methods. All trials were planted by a modern four row planter modified for small plot work. A soil insecticide (Force) was applied in furrow at planting for all corn trials. Corn plots were over planted by 10 percent and later thinned to desired stands. Sorghum plots were planted at a rate to achieve 4-6 plants per foot of row at harvest. Each plot was four rows wide and 23 or 21 feet long. The center two rows of each plot were harvested to determine yields.

Fertilization. All test fields were at a high level of fertility. Additional fertilizer was plowed down or side dressed as needed to ensure top yields.

Method of harvest. All corn plots were harvested with a custom-built, self-propelled, corn plot combine. Sorghum plots were harvested with a sorghum plot combine. Grain collected from each plot was weighed, and tested for moisture content. An electronic moisture monitor was used in the combine for all moisture readings. No allowance was made for grain that might have been lost in harvest.


Grain yield. Grain weight and moisture was converted to bushels per acre of No. 2 shelled corn (15.5 percent moisture) while sorghum was reported using 56 pounds per bushel at 14 percent moisture.

Moisture content. Occasionally, hybrids too late in maturity for a given area are entered in these tests. These hybrids are often high in yield, but their moisture content may make them poor choices for farm use unless proper drying or storage facilities are available.

Erect plants. The number of erect plants in each plot of a hybrid was determined at harvest time. Any plant leaning at an angle of more than 45 degrees or broken below the ear was considered lodged. Plants broken above the ear were considered erect.

Population. Corn plots were over planted and thinned to the desired population. Stand differences may be caused by failure to germinate or by damage from diseases, insects, cultivation, or rodents.

Head Exertion. Sorghum hybrids were measured in late August for length of seed head exertion from the flag leaf to the base of the seed head (expressed in inches).

Plant Height. Sorghum hybrids were measured in late August from the ground to the top of the seed head (expressed in inches).

Head Compactness. Sorghum hybrids were rated in late August for seed head compactness. A rating of 1 was given for tightly compacted seed heads, 2 for moderate compactness, 3 for loose compactness.


                It is impossible to measure performance exactly in any test of plant material. Harvesting efficiency may vary, soils may not be uniform, and many other conditions may produce variability. Results of repeated tests, like those reported here, are more reliable than those of a single-year or a single-strip test. When one hybrid consistently out yields another at several test locations and over several years of testing, the chances are good that this difference is real and should be a consideration in choosing a hybrid. When comparing yields, however, grain moisture content, percentage of erect plants, and plant population must also be considered.

                A number of statistical tests are available for comparing hybrids within a single trial. One of these tests, the least significant difference (L.S.D.), when used in the manner suggested by Carmer and Swanson1 is quite simple to apply and is more appropriate than most other tests. When two hybrids are compared and the difference between them is greater than the tabulated L.S.D. value, the hybrids are judged "significantly different."

                The L.S.D. is a number expressed in bushels per acre and presented following the average yield for each location. An L.S.D. level of 25% is shown. Find the highest yielding hybrid within the regional table or single location table of interest, subtract the 25% L.S.D. value from the highest yielding hybrid, every hybrid with a greater yield than the resulting number is 'statistically the same' as the highest yielding hybrid. Consider the merits of the hybrids in this group when making hybrid selections.

                In a study of the frequencies of occurrence of three types of statistical errors and their relative seriousness, Carmer2 found strong arguments for an optimal significance level in the range α = 0.20 to 0.40, where α is the Type I statistical error rate for comparisons between means that are really equal. Herein, a value of α = 0.25 is used in computing the L.S.D. 25- percent level shown in the tables.

                To make the best use of the information presented in this circular and to avoid any misunderstanding or misrepresentation of it, the reader should consider an additional caution about comparing hybrids. Readers who compare hybrids in different trials should be extremely careful, because no statistical tests are presented for that purpose. Readers should note that the difference between a single hybrid's performance at one location and its performance at another is caused primarily by environmental effects and random variability. Furthermore, the difference between the performance of hybrid A in one trial and that of hybrid B in another is the result not only of environmental effects and random variability, but of genetic effects as well.

                  1Carmer, S.G. and M.R. Swanson. "An Evaluation of Ten Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures by Monte Carlo Methods." Journal of American Statistical Association 68:66-74. 1973.

                  2Carmer, S.G. "Optimal Significance Levels for Application of the Least Significant Difference in Crop Performance Trials." Crop Science 16:95-99, 1976.


Mt. Morris

Location: Nelson farm, Ogle county, north of Mt. Morris, north central Illinois.

Cooperator: Rick Nelson.

Soil type: Muscatine silt loam.

Planting date: April 24.

Harvest date: October 19.

Nitrogen: 140lbs. as 28% (spring applied).

Herbicides: Pre emerge- Harness Xtra, Hornet; Post-Laddok.

Tillage: Spring- field cultivation.


Location: University of Illinois, Northern

Illinois Research Center, DeKalb county, southwest of DeKalb.

Cooperators: Lyle Paul; research director,

David Lindgren; farm foreman.

Soil type: Flanagan silt loam.

Planting date: April 24.

Harvest date: October 21.

Nitrogen(conventional): 180 lbs. PPI as 28%.

Nitrogen(corn on corn): 200 lbs. PPI as 28%.

Herbicides: PPI- Degree Extra, Aatrex and Balannce

Tillage:Fall- disk, Spring- mulchfinish.


Location: Slaymaker farm, Whiteside county, west of Rock Falls, northwestern Illinois.

Soil Type: Beaucoup silty clay loam.

Cooperator: Robert Slaymaker.

Planting Date: April 23.

Harvest Date: September 30.

Nitrogen: 200 lbs. PPI as 28% .

Herbicides: PPI- Outlook, Aatrex; Post- Laddok.

Tillage: Fall- chisel, Spring- field cultivate.


Location: University of Illinois, Northwestern

Illinois Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center, Warren county, northwest of Monmouth. Cooperator: Eric Adee; research director,

Martin Johnson; farm foreman.

Soil type: Muscatine silt loam.

Planting date: April 15.

Harvest date: September 23.

Nitrogen (conventional): 180 lbs. PPI as 28%.

Nitrogen (corn on corn): 220 lbs PPI as 28% .

Herbicides: PPI- Fulltime, Post- Laddok, Calisto.

Tillage: Fall- deep rip, Spring- field cultivate.

New Berlin

Location: King farm, Sangamon county, north of

New Berlin, central Illinois.

Cooperator: Ike and Justin King.

Soil type: Sable silty-clay loam.

Planting date: April 14.

Harvest date: September 25.

Nitrogen: 27 lbs as DAP and 190 lbs. as anhydrous (fall applied).

Herbicides: PPI- Lumax+Aatrazine; Post- Laddox.

Tillage: Fall- chisel plow, Spring- field cultivate.


Location: University of Illinois, Orr Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center, Pike county, west of Perry, west-central Illinois.

Cooperators: Mike Vose; farm foreman.

Soil type: Clarksdale silt loam.

Planting date: April 15.

Harvest date: September 13.

Nitrogen: 195 lbs. as anhydrous (fall applied).

Herbicides: Pre emerge- Harness Xtra.

Tillage: Fall- deep chisel, Spring- field cultivate.


Location: Hoffman farm, Grundy county, north of Dwight, northeastern Illinois.

Cooperators: Allen Hoffman.

Soil type: Reddick silty clay loam.

Planting date: April 16.

Harvest date: September 28.

Nitrogen: 200 lbs. 28% (spring applied).

Herbicides: PPI- Bicep Lite; Post-Laddok.

Tillage: Spring-field cultivate.


Location: Wurmnest farm, Woodford county, north of Goodfield, central Illinois.

Cooperator: Mike Wurmnest.

Soil Type: Ipava silt loam.

Planting date: April 16.

Harvest date: September 24.

Nitrogen: 171 lbs. as 28% (fall, spring and sidedress).

Herbicides: PPI- Atrazine; Post- Accent, Laddok.

Tillage: Fall- chisel, Spring- soil finisher.


Location: University of Illinois, Crop Sciences Research and Education Center, Champaign county, Urbana, east-central Illinois.

Cooperators: Robert Dunker; superintendent,

Mike Kleiss; farm foreman.

Soil type: Flanagan silt loam.

Planting date: April 17.

Harvest date: September 27.

Nitrogen: 180 lbs. as 28% (spring applied).

Herbicides: PPI- Dual, Aatrex; Post- Accent, Laddok.

Herbicide(Roundup trial): Roundup

Tillage: Fall- chisel, Spring- soil finisher.

Brownstown (Corn)

Location: University of Illinois, Brownstown Agronomy Research center, Fayette county, south of Brownstown, south-central Illinois.

Cooperators: Steve Ebelhar; research director, Lindell Deal; field worker.

Soil type: Cisne silt loam.

Planting date: April 19.

Harvest date: September 20.

Nitrogen: 150 lbs. as 28% (spring applied).

Herbicides: PPI- Harness Extra.; Post-Basagran.

Tillage: Fall- deep ripper, Spring- disk, mix-n-till.


Location: Southern Illinois University Research Center, east of Belleville, St. Clair county.

Cooperators: Dr. Ed Varsa; research director, Ron Krausz; field manager.

Soil type: Ebbert silt loam.

Planting date: April 19.

Harvest date: September 21.

Herbicides: PPI- Bicep II Magnum, Aatrex.

Nitrogen: 150 lbs as ammonium nitrate (spring applied).

Tillage: Fall- chisel, Spring-disk, and cultimulcher.

Carbondale (Corn)

Location: Myers farm, Jackson county, north of Carbondale, southern Illinois.

Cooperators: Dr. Ed Varsa; research director, Paul Pinnon; field manager.

Soil Type: Starks silt loam.

Planting date: May 12.

Harvest date: October 02.

Nitrogen: 160 lbs as ammonium nitrate (spring applied).

Herbicides: PPI- Bicep.

Tillage: Spring- disk, field cultivate.

Carbondale (Sorghum)

Location: Southern Illinois University Agronomy Research Farm, Jackson county, Carbondale.

Cooperators: Dr. Ed Varsa; research director, Paul Pinnon; field manager.

Soil Type: Stoy silt loam.

Planting date: May 21.

Harvest date: September 21.

Nitrogen: 150 lbs. as ammonium nitrate (spring applied).

Herbicides: None.

Tillage: Spring- disk, field cultivate.

Dixon Springs (Sorghum)

Location: University of Illinois, Dixon Springs Agricultural Center, Pope county, extreme southern Illinois.

Cooperators: Steve Ebelhar; research director, Carl Hart; research specialist.

Soil type: Belknap silt loam.

Planting date: May 20.

Harvest date: September 22.

Herbicide: Pre emerge- Harness Xtra.

Nitrogen: 100 lbs. as 28% UAN sidedress.

Tillage: Fall- deep rip, Spring- disk twice.


Location             May  June  July  Aug. Sept.

Mt. Morris         5.55   4.75   4.55   4.70   1.00

DeKalb               9.54   3.07   2.08   3.25   0.70

Erie                     6.90   2.20   2.00   6.15   1.00

Monmouth         4.02   2.41   5.69   5.80   2.92

New Berlin         4.85   2.35   3.95   4.10   0.20

Perry                  3.96   2.17   4.39   6.33   0.30

Dwight               5.16   2.30   1.70   9.35   0.05

Goodfield           5.20   4.80   1.30   1.20   0.90

Urbana               4.50   4.08   5.67   4.29   199

Brownstown      9.38   1.43   5.17   5.49   0.21

Belleville            8.72   2.81   6.75   5.22  0.08

Carbondale         6.06   3.24   3.64   1.84   0.13

Dixon Springs    5.41   2.15   3.24   1.91   0.00


Access, Access Seed, 980 Fox Ridge Road, Dike, IA 50624. (319-989-2531)

Adler, Adler Seeds, Inc., 6085 W. 550N, Sharpsville, IN 46068. (800-536-2676)

AgSource, AgSource Seeds, Inc., 1800 L Ave., Nevada, IA 50201. (515-382-8880)

Asgrow, Monsanto, 800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63167. (800-833-5252)

Beck, Beck's Superior Hybrids, 6767 E. 276 St., Atlanta, IN 46031. (800-937-2325)

Bio Gene, Bio Gene Seeds, 5491 Tri County Hwy., Sardinia, OH 45171. (888-862-3276)

Brown, Brown Seed, Inc., P.O. Box 7, Bay City, WI 54723. (715-594-3323)

Burrus, Burrus Power Hybrids, 826 Arenzville Rd., Arenzville, IL 62611. (217-997-5511)

Campbell, Campbell Seed, Inc., 1375N 800W, Tipton, IN 46072. (765-963-5950)

Corn Belt, Corn Belt Hybrids, P.O. Box 95, St. Marys, OH 45885. (800-977-3841)

Cornelius, Cornelius Seed, 14760 317th Ave., Bellevue, IA 52031. (563-672-3463)

Dairyland, Dairyland Seed Co, Inc., P.O. Box 958, West Bend, WI 53095. (262-338-0163)

DeKalb, Monsanto, 800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63167. (800-833-5252)

Exsegen, Miles Seed, P.O. Box 22879, Owensboro, KY 42304-2879. (800-666-4537)

Garst, Garst Seed Co., 2369-330th St., P.O. Box 500, Slater, IA 50244. (800-831-6630)

Gateway, Gateway Seed Co., 5517 VanBuren Rd., Nashville, IL 62263. (618-327-8000)

Golden Harvest, Golden Harvest, 220 N. Eldorado Rd., Suite E., Bloomington,IL 61704-3544. (800-610-7333)

Henkel, Henkel Seeds, Inc., 107 Cedar Grove Rd., Mendota, IL 61342. (815-539-9317)

High Cycle, Trelay Seed Co., 11623 Hwy 80, Livingston, WI 53554. (608-943-6363)

Hoblit, Hoblit Seed Co., P.O. Box 487, Atlanta, IL 61723. (217-648-2392)

Horizon, Horizon Genetics LLC, P.O. Box 31, Mason City, IL 62664. (800-533-2879)

Hughes, Hughes Hybrids, Inc., 206 N. Hughes Road, Woodstock, IL 60098. (815-338-1141)

ICORN, ICORN, 792 N. Peru St. Cicero, IN 46034. (800-240-0101)

Jung, Jung Seed Genetics, 341 South High St. Randolph, WI 53956. (920-326-5891)

Kaltenberg, Kaltenberg Seeds Farms, Inc.,P.O. Box 278, Waunakee, WI 53597-0278. (608-849-5021)

Kruger, Kruger Seed Co., 33938 160 th. Av.., Dike, IA 50624. (800-772-2721)

Lewis, Lewis Hybrids, Inc., Box 38 Ursa, IL 62376. (800-252-7851)

LG Seeds, LG Seeds, Inc., 22827 Shissler Rd. Elmwood, IL 61529. (309-742-2211)

M&D, M&D Seed, 8982 Ford Rd., Kinmundy, IL 62854. (618-292-7498)

Merschman, Merschman Seeds, Inc., 103 Av. D, West Point, IA 52656. (800-848-7333)

Midland, Brown Seed Enterprises, Inc., 289 Co. Rd. 500N, Neoga, IL 62447. (217-895-2335)

Pfister, Pfister Hybrid Corn Co., 187 N. Fayette St,. El Paso, IL 61738. (309-527-6000)

Pioneer, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., 14171 Carole Dr., Bloomington, IL 61704. (800-950-3489)

Premium, Premium Seed, Inc., P.O. Box 218, Berwick, IL 61417. (309-462-2396)

Prime, Prime Farm Seeds, Inc.,120 N. Maple St., P.O. Box 549, Dana, IN 47847. (765-665-0170)

Quality Plus, Quality Plus Seed, 711 North I Street, Monmouth, IL 61462-1063. (309-734-5764)

Renk, Renk Seed Co., 6800 Wilburn Rd., Sun Prairie, WI 53590. (608-837-7351)

Roeschley, Roeschley Hybrids, 8222 E. 1500 N. Rd., Graymont, IL 61743. (815-743-5938)

Select, Select Seed Hybrids, 277 W State Rd 218, Camden, IN 46917. (574-686-2743)

Sieben, Sieben Hybrids, Inc., 633 N. College Ave., Geneseo, IL 61254. (309-944-5131)

Sorghum Partners, Sorghum Partners, Inc., P.O. Box 189, New Deal, TX 79350 (806-746-5566)

Steyer, Steyer Seeds, 6154 N. Co. Rd. 33, Tiffin, OH 44883. (800-231-4274)

Stone, Stone Seed Farms, Inc., 5965 W. St. Rt. 97, Pleasant Plains, IL 62677. (217-546-8006)

Sun Prairie, Sun Prairie Seeds, 1676 CR 2200 E. St. Joseph, IL 61873. (217-469-2351)

Trisler, Trisler Seed Farms, Inc., 3274E 800 N Rd., Fairmount, IL 61841. (217-288-9301)

Vigoro, Royster-Clark, Inc.,717 Robinson Rd. SE, Washington C.H., OH 43160. (800-659-7790)

Whata, Whata Hybrid, Inc., 8908 W. Sabin Church Rd., Pearl City, IL 61062. (815-864-2290)

Whisnand, Whisnand Hybrids, 1220 E. State Rt. 133, Arcola, IL 61910. (217-268-3714)

Wilken, Wilken Seed Grains, Inc., P.O. Box 770, Pontiac, IL 61764. (815-844-3458)

Willcross, Neco Seed Farm, Inc., P.O. Box 379, Garden City, MO 64747. (317-409-8214)

Wyffels, Miles Seed, P.O. Box 22879, Owensboro, KY 42304-2879. (800-666-4537)